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Special Field Exam: Sample Reading List

Composition Studies, Basic Writing, and Race - Steve Lamos

History and Historical Contexts: Composition and Literacy

Arnove, Robert F. and Harvey J. Graff, ed. National Literacy Campaigns. New York: Perseus Press, 1987.

Bauman, Gerd. The Written Word: Literacy in Transition. New York: Oxford, UP, 1986. 23-50.

Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.

Bizzell, Patricia. “William Perry and Liberal Education.” College English 46.5 (Sept 1984): 447-54.

Brandt, Deborah. Literacy in American Lives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2001.

Brodkey, Linda. Writing Permitted in Designated Areas Only. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 1996.

Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind.’” College English 46.7 (November 1984): 635-52.

Brutt-Griffler, Janina and Keiko K. Samimy. “Revisiting the Colonial in the Postcolonial: Critical Praxis for Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers in the TESOL Program.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 413-431.

Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001.

Crowley, Sharon. Composition in the University: Historical and Polemical Essays. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh UP, 1998.

Emig, Janet. “Writing as a Mode of Learning.” College Composition and Communication 28.2 (May 1977): 122-128.

Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh UP, 1992.

Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing.” College Composition and Communication 32.4 (Dec 1981): 365-87.

Fox, Tom. Defending Access: A Critique of Standards in Higher Education. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1999.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New Revised 20th Anniversary Edition. Trans. Myra Bergman Ramos. New York: Continuum, 1993.

Frye, Dana. “Participatory Education as a Critical Framework for an Immigrant Women's ESL Class.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 501-513.

Gilyard, Keith, ed. Race, Rhetoric, and Composition. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1999. 44-52.

Goody, Jack. The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 1977

Graff, Harvey J. The Labyrinths of Literacy: Reflections on Literacy Past and Present. Revised and Expanded Edition. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh UP, 1995.

Graff, Harvey J. The Literacy Myth: Literacy and Social Structure in the Nineteenth Century City. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

Hairston, Maxine. “Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.” College Composition and Communication 43.2 (May 1992): 179-195.

Hammond, Jennifer and Mary Macken-Horarik. “Critical Literacy: Challenges and Questions for ESL Classrooms.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 528-544.

Harris, Joseph. A Teaching Subject: Composition Since 1966. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Hayes, John R. “A New Frame for Understanding Cognition and Affect in Writing.” The Science of Writing. Ed. C. Michael Levy and Sarah Ransdell. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996. 1-27.

Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways With Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. New York: Cambridge UP, 1983.

Horner, Bruce. Terms of Work for Composition: A Materialist Critique. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2000.

Ibrahim, Awad El Karim M. “Becoming Black: Rap and Hip-Hop, Race, Gender, Identity, and the Politics of ESL Learning.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 349- 369.

Lin, Angel M.Y. “Doing-English-Lessons in the Reproductive Transformation of Social Worlds?” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 393-412.

Miller, Susan. Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.

Moll, Luis C. and Norma Gonzales. “Lessons from Research with Language-Minority Children.” Journal of Reading Behavior 26.4 (1994): 439-56.

Moss, Beverly J., ed. Literacy Across Communities. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 1994. 9-47.

Myers, Greg. “Reality, Consensus, and Reform in the Rhetoric of Composition Teaching.” College English 48.2 (February 1986): 154-171.

North, Stephen M. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1987.

Norton, Bonny. “Language, Identity, and the Ownership of English.” TESOL Quarterly 31.3 (1997): 409-430.

Norton-Peirce, Bonny. “Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning.” TESOL Quarterly 29.1 (1995): 9-31.

Ohmann, Richard. English in America: A Radical View of the Profession. New York: Oxford UP, 1976.

Olson, David R. “Writing and the Mind.” Sociocultural Studies of Mind. Ed. James V. Wertch, Pablo Del Rio, and Amelia Alvarez. New York: Cambridge UP, 1995. 95-123.

Parks, Stephen. Class Politics: The Movement for the Students’ Right to Their Own Language. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2000.

Peck, Wayne Campbell, Linda Flower, and Lorraine Higgins. “Community Literacy.” College Composition and Communication 46.2 (1995): 199-222.

Pennycook, Alastair. Critical Applied Linguistics. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2001.

Prendergast, Catherine. “Race: The Absent Presence in Composition Studies.” College Composition and Communication 50.1 (1998): 36-53.

Prendergast, Catherine. “The Water in the Fishbowl: Historicizing ‘Ways with Words.’” Written Communication 17.4 (October 2000): 39-52.

Rivera, Klaudia M. “Popular Research and Social Transformation: A Community-Based Approach to Critical Pedagogy.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 485-500.

Scribner, Sylvia and Michael Cole. The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1981.

Shor, Ira. Culture Wars: School and Society in the Conservative Restoration, 1969- 1984. Boston: Routledge & K. Paul, 1986.

Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.

Sommers, Nancy. “Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers.” College Composition and Communication 31.4 (December 1980): 378- 388.

Street, Brian V. Literacy in Theory and Practice. London: Cambridge UP, 1984.

Thesen, Lucia. “Voices, Discourse, and Transition: In Search of New Categories in EAP.” TESOL Quarterly 31.3 (1997): 543-560.

Trimbur, John. “Consensus and Difference in Collaborative Learning.” College English 51.6 (October 1989): 602-616.

Villanueva, Victor. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1993.

History and Historical Contexts: Basic Writing

Agnew, Eleanor and Margaret McLaughlin. “Basic Writing Class of ’93 Five Years Later: How the Academic Paths of Blacks and Whites Diverged.” Journal of Basic Writing 18.1 (2000): 40-54.

Bartholomae, David. “The Tidy House: Basic Writing in the American Curriculum.” Journal of Basic Writing 12.1 (1993): 4-21.

Bartholomae, David and Anthony Petrosky. Facts, Artifacts, and Counterfacts: Theory and Method for a Reading and Writing Course. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1986.

Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writers’ Block and Other Composing Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 134-165.

Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know About Writing.” PRE/TEXT 3.3 (1982): 213-243.

DiPardo, Anne. A Kind of Passport: A Basic Writing Adjunct Program and the Challenge of Student Diversity. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1993.

Enos, Theresa. A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers. New York: Random House, 1987.

Horner, Bruce and Min-Zhan Lu. Representing the “Other”: Basic Writers and the Teaching of Basic Writing. Urbana, IL: NCTE Press, 1999.

Fox, Tom. “Standards and Access.” Journal of Basic Writing 12.1 (1993): 37-41.

Gilyard, Keith. “Basic Writing, Cost Effectiveness, and Ideology.” Journal of Basic Writing 19.1 (2000): 36-42.

Gleason, Barbara. “Evaluating Writing Programs in Real Time: The Politics of Remediation.” College Composition and Communication 51.4 (June 2000): 560- 588.

Greenberg, Karen. “A Response to Ira Shor’s ‘Our Apartheid: Writing Instruction and Inequality.’” Journal of Basic Writing 16.2 (1997): 90-100.

Grego, Rhonda and Nancy Thompson. “Repositioning Remediation: Renegotiating Composition’s Work in the Academy.” College Composition and Communication 47.1 (1996): 62-85.

Gray-Rosendale, Laura. Rethinking Basic Writing: Exploring Identity, Politics, and Community in Interaction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.

Jones, William. “Basic Writing: Pushing Against Racism.” Journal of Basic Writing 12.1 (1993): 72-80.

Kasden, Lawrence N. and Daniel R. Hoeber. Basic Writing: Essays for Teachers, Researchers, and Administrators. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1980.

Lunsford, Andrea. “Cognitive Development and the Basic Writer.” College English 41.1 (September 1979): 449-59.

Mutnick, Deborah. Writing in an Alien World: Basic Writing and the Struggle for Equality in Higher Education. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1996.

Patterson, Orlando. “Language, Ethnicity, and Change.” Journal of Basic Writing 1 (1980): 62-74.

Perl, Sondra. “The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers.” Research in the Teaching of English 13.4 (Dec 1979): 317-336.

Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: The Struggles and Achievements of America's Underprepared. New York: Free Press, 1989.

Rose, Mike. “Narrowing the Mind and the Page: Remedial Writers and Cognitive Reductionism.” College Composition and Communication 39.3 (October 1988): 267-98.

Rose, Mike. “The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University.” College English 47.4 (April 1985): 341-359.

Rodby, Judith and Tom Fox. “Basic Work and Material Acts: The Ironies, Discrepancies, and Disjunctures of Basic Writing and Mainstreaming.” Journal of Basic Writing 19.1 (2000): 84-99.

Shaughnessy, Mina. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.

Shor, Ira. “Illegal Literacy.” Journal of Basic Writing 19.1 (2000): 100-112.

Shor, Ira. “Our Apartheid: Writing Instruction and Inequality.” Journal of Basic Writing 16.1 (1997): 91-104.

Soliday, Mary. “From the Margins to the Mainstream: Reconceiving Remediation.” College Composition and Communication 47.1 (1996): 85-101.

Stygall, Gail. “Unraveling at Both Ends: Anti-Undergraduate Education, Anti- Affirmative Action, and Basic Writing at Research Schools.” Journal of Basic Writing 18.2 (1999): 4-22.

History and Historical Contexts: Educational Policies and Politics

Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina UP, 1988.

Campbell, John R. Reclaiming a Lost Heritage: Land-Grant and Other Higher Education Initiatives for the Twenty-First Century. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State UP, 1998.

Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. A Digest of Reports of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education With an Index to Recommendations and Suggested Assignments of Responsibility for Action. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.

Dreyfuss, Joel and Charles Lawrence III. The Bakke Case: The Politics of Inequality. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979.

Dunham, E. Alden. Colleges of the Forgotten Americans: A Profile of State Colleges and Regional Universities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

Kerr, Clark. The Great Transformation in Higher Education: 1960-1980. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.

Lavin, David E. and David Hyllegard. Changing the Odds: Open Admissions and the Life Chances of the Disadvantaged. New Haven: Yale UP, 1996.

Lawrence, Charles R. III and Mari J. Matsuda. We Won’t Go Back: Making the Case for Affirmative Action. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1997.

McDowell, George R. Land Grant Universities and Extension into the 21st Century: Renegotiating or Abandoning a Social Contract. Ames, IA: Iowa State UP, 2001.

Neyland, Leedell W. Historically Black Land-Grant Institutions and the Development of Agriculture and Home Economics. Tallahassee, FL: Florida A&M University Foundation, 1990.

Rhoads, Robert A. and James R. Valadez. Democracy, Multiculturalism, and the Community College: A Critical Perspective. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996.

Schulman, Bruce L. Lyndon B. Johnson and American Liberalism: A Brief Biography with Documents. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press, 1995.

Schwartz, Bernard. Behind Bakke: Affirmative Action and the Supreme Court. New York: NYU Press, 1988.

Schwartz, Bernard. Swann’s Way: The School Busing Case and the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.

Thackery, Russell I. The Future of the State University. Urbana, IL: Illinois UP, 1971.

Trachsel, Mary. Institutionalizing Literacy: The Historical Role of College Entrance Examinations in English. Carbondale IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1992.

Wagner, Geoffrey. The End of Education. New York: A.S. Barnes and Co., 1976.

Whitman, Mark, ed. Removing a Badge of Slavery: The Record of Brown v. Board of Education. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishing, 1993.

Wolters, Raymond. The Burden of Brown: Thirty Years of School Desegregation. Knoxville, TN: Tennessee UP, 1984.

Theoretical Framework: Race and Racism

Bell, Derrick. Race, Racism, and American Law. 4th ed. Gaithersburg, NY: Aspen Law and Business, 2000.

Bell, Derrick. And We Are Not Saved: The Elusive Quest for Racial Justice. New York: Basic Books, 1987.

Bell, Derrick. “Serving Two Masters: Integration Ideals and Client Interests in School Desegregation Litigation.” Yale Law Journal 85 (1976): 470-490.

Crenshaw, Kimberle, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas, ed. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: The New Press, 1995.

Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic. Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2000.

Delpit, Lisa. Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom. New York: New Press, 1995.

DuBois, William E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Rpt. in Three Negro Classics. Ed. John Hope Franklin. New York, Avon: 1965. 207-390.

Dudziak, Mary. “Desegregation as Cold War Imperative.” Stanford Law Review 41 (1988): 61-120.

Espinoza, Leslie and Angela P. Harris. “Embracing the Tar-Baby: Lat-Crit Theory and the Sticky Mess of Race.” California Law Review 85.5 (1997): 1585-1645.

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Charles Lam Markmann. New York: Grove Press, 1967.

Freeman, Alan D. “Derrick Bell—Race and Class: The Dilemma of Liberal Reform.” Yale Law Journal 90.8 (1981): 1880-1895.

Goldberg, David Theo. Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1993.

Haney-Lopez, Ian F. “Race and Erasure: The Salience of Race to Latinos/Latinas.” La Raza Law Journal 10.1 (1998): 57-125.

Haney-Lopez, Ian. White By Law: The Legal Construction of Race. New York: New York UP, 1996.

Harris, Cheryl. “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review 106 (1993): 1709-1791.

Ladson-Billings, Gloria. “Racialized Discourses and Ethnic Epistemologies.” In The Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. London: Sage, 2000. 703-715.

Ladson-Billings, Gloria and William F Tate, IV. “Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education.” Teachers College Record 97.1 (1995): 47-68.

Martinez, George A. “Mexican Americans and Whiteness.” Harvard Latino Law Review 2 (1997): 321-328.

Ogbu, John U. Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross-Cultural Perspective. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Olson, Gary A. and Lynn Worsham. Race, Rhetoric, and the Post-Colonial. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Parker, Laurence, Donna Deyhle, and Sofia Villenas. Race Is…Race Isn’t: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1999.

Perea, Juan F. “The Black/White Binary Paradigm of Race.” California Law Review 85.5 (1997): 1213-1258.

Rosen, Jeffrey. “The Bloods and the Crits.” The New Republic 9 Dec. 1996: 27- 42.

Ross, Thomas. “Innocence and Affirmative Action.” Vanderbilt Law Review 43.2 (1990): 297-316.

West, Cornel. “The Ignoble Paradox of Modernity.” Foreword. Spirits of Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade in the Seventeenth Century. Ed. Madaline Burnside, and Rosemarie Robotham. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. 8-10.

West, Cornel. Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America. New York: Routledge, 1993.

West, Cornel. “Race and Modernity.” The Cornel West Reader. Ed. Cornel West. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999. 119-139.

Williams, Patricia. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991.


Baynham, Mike and Stef Slembrouck. “Speech Representation and Institutional Discourse.” Text 19.4 (1999): 439-457.

Bogdan, Robert C. and Sari Knopp Biklen, ed. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods. 2nd ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1992.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo and Tyrone A. Forman. “‘I am not racist but…’: Mapping White College Students’ Racial Ideology in the USA.” Discourse & Society 11.1 (2000): 50-85.

Brereton, John C., ed. The Origins of Composition Studies in the American College, 1875-1925: A Documentary History. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh UP, 1995.

Burke, Peter, ed. New Perspectives on Historical Writing. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 1991.

Connell, Ian and Dariusz Galasinski. “Academic Mission Statements: An Exercise in Negotiation.” Discourse & Society 9.4 (1998): 457-479.

Connors, Robert J. Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh UP, 1997.

Drew, Paul and Marja-Leena Sorjonen. “Institutional Dialogue.” Discourse as Social Interaction. Ed. Teun A. van Dijk. London: Sage Publications, 1997. 92-118.

Fairclough, Norman. Language and Power. London: Longman, 1989.

Fairclough, Norman and Ruth Wodak. “Critical Discourse Analysis.” Discourse as Social Interaction. Ed. Teun A.van Dijk. London: Sage Publications, 1997. 258-284.

Ferreira-Buckley, Linda. “Rescuing the Archives from Foucault.” College English 61.5 (May 1999): 577-583.

Fowler, Roger. “Power.” Discourse Analysis in Society. Ed. Teun A.VanDijk. London: Academic Press, 1985. 61-82.

Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota UP, 1993.

Gee, James Paul. Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses. 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Frances, 1996.

Gere, Anne Ruggles. Intimate Practices: Literacy and Cultural Work in U.S. Women’s Clubs, 1880-1920. Urbana, IL: Illinois UP, 1997.

Hester, Stephen and Davis Francis. “Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, and ‘Institution Talk.’” Text 20.3 (2000): 391-413.

Hodder, Ian. “The Interpretation of Documents and Material Culture.” Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. London: Sage, 2000. 279-313.

Holt, Elizabeth. “Just Gassing: An Analysis of Direct Reported Speech in a Conversation Between Employees of a Gas Supply Company.” Text 19.4 (1999): 505-537.

Iedema, Rick A.M. “Institutional Responsibility and Hidden Meanings.” Discourse & Society 9.4 (1998): 481-500.

Kincheloe, Joe L. and Peter McLaren. “Rethinking Critical Theory and Qualitative Research.” The Handbook of Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. Ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. London: Sage, 2000. 703-715.

Kirsch, Gesa and Patricia A. Sullivan, ed. Methods and Methodologies in Composition Research. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1992.

Kleiner, Brian. “The Modern Racist Ideology and Its Reproduction in ‘Pseudo- Argument.’” Discourse & Society 9.2 (1998): 187-215.

Kress, Gunther. “Against Arbitrariness: The Social Production of the Sign as a Foundational Issue in Critical Discourse Analysis.” Discourse & Society 4.2 (1993): 169-191.

Kress, Gunther. “Ideological Structures in Discourse.” Discourse Analysis in Society. Ed. Teun A. VanDijk. London: Academic Press, 1985. 27-42.

Kumaravadivelu, B. “Critical Classroom Discourse Analysis.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 453-484.

Lincoln, Yvonna S. and Egon G. Guba. Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1988.

Mailloux, Steven. Reception Histories: Rhetoric, Pragmatism, and American Cultural Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1998.

Mailloux, Steven. “Reading Typos, Reading Archives.” College English 61.5 (May 1999): 584-590.

Miller, Thomas P. and Melody Bowdon. “A Rhetorical Stance on the Archives of Civic Action.” College English 61.5 (May 1999): 591-598.

Mortensen, Peter. “Going Public.” College Composition and Communication 50.2 (1998): 182-205.

Mortensen, Peter and Gesa E. Kirsch, ed. Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996.

Mumby, Dennis K. and Robin P. Clair. “Organizational Discourse.” Discourse as Social Interaction. Ed. Teun A. van Dijk. London: Sage Publications, 1997.

Paine, Charles. The Resistant Writer: Rhetoric as Immunity, 1850 to the Present. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1999.

Price, Steve. “Critical Discourse Analysis: Discourse Acquisition and Discourse Practices.” TESOL Quarterly 33.3 (1999): 581-595.

Scott, John. A Matter of Record: Documentary Sources in Social Research. Cambridge, England: Polity Press, 1990.

Sykes, Mary. “Discrimination in Discourse.” Discourse Analysis in Society. Ed. Teun A. van Dijk. London: Academic Press, 1985. 83-101.

Swales, John M. and Priscilla S. Rogers. “Discourse and the Projection of Corporate Culture: The Mission Statement.” Discourse & Society 6.2 (1995): 223-242.

van Dijk, Teun A., Stella Ting-Toomey, Geneva Smitherman, and Denise Troutman. “Discourse, Ethnicity, Culture, and Racism.” Discourse as Social Interaction. Ed. Teun A. van Dijk. London: Sage Publications, 1997. 144-180.

van Dijk, Teun A. “Mediating Racism: The Role of the Media in the Production of Racism.” Language, Power, and Ideology: Studies in Political Discourse. Ed. Ruth Wodak. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1989. 199-226.

Wetherell, Margaret and Jonathon Potter. Mapping the Language of Racism: Discourse and the Legitimation of Exploitation. New York: Harvester Wheatshaff, 1992.