Center Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) Handouts
Shaping student writing:
Tools for triggering invention and revision throughout the process
Viewed in a broad sense, the question of response becomes one of how we as instructors can facilitate invention (the generation of ideas and forms), textual revision, and learning throughout the writing process. Framed in this manner, the question opens up a varied range of tools that we can use to structure and enrich students’ work and ultimately to encourage the kinds of texts and the kinds of learning we aim for. The list below and the attached sheets suggest some of the tools at hand.
● Task clarification: Through written task instructions and classroom discussions you can work to clarify what you expect of a task, focusing both on what you want students to do and learn and on what you want the final product to look like.
● Modelling: In class lectures, you may be modeling the kinds of reasoning you expect, the types of topics/issues you hope to see, the kinds of critical reading and thinking you want students to demonstrate, the disciplinary values (e.g., detail, conciseness, originality, synthesis, application) that you want students to emulate, and so on. By explicitly drawing students’ attention to how this modeling relates to assigned writing, you may help to both clarify the task and trigger further invention/revision.
● Resources: Quality of students’ writing is obviously related to the resources they bring to their work and texts. Facilitating access to textual, material or human resources will often enrich students’ invention. Examples of this would include: pointing students (in general or in specific cases) to textual source materials; setting up specialized library modules to aid in finding textual sources; encouraging collaborative work among students; structuring environments to aid students’ observations; providing students with greater opportunities to observe or manipulate events/objects under study; and providing opportunities to discuss work with instructors or others.
● Logs/journals: You may ask students to keep logs in which they record observations, thoughts, and responses to/questions about readings. Journals/logs often serve as excellent resources of invention. They also can prompt extended engagement in the writing process, particularly if they are turned in periodically.
● In-progress reports: If choice is involved, you may ask students to give a short proposal for topics so that you can review them. You might also request an in-progress microtheme (See Bean, Drenk, and Lee, “Microtheme strategies for developing cognitive skills”). For term papers, students could write a thesis-support microtheme that provides a skeletal version of the argument (some weeks before the final draft is due). For laboratory reports, you may ask for a microtheme that summarizes findings and discussion or presents the solution to a problem and its rationale. In addition to giving you an opportunity to respond to the students’ work in progress, the microtheme also encourages students not to wait till the day before the paper is due to begin work.
● In-progress response to drafts: Peers or instructors may respond in writing and/or orally to students’ drafts. This type of response is often particularly valuable in raising questions and pointing to problems. The need to produce a draft some time before the final paper both provides feedback and also requires students to engage in a more extended process. To be effective, peers normally need guidelines to structure response activities and goals. Guidance may be given through providing response sheets (see below), explicit instructions, and/or instructor modeling of response.
● Cover memos: You may ask students to write a cover memo to introduce their papers (draft or final). The memo should be prompted by specific questions that are appropriate (see link for example).