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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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Writers Workshop: Writer Resources

American Psychological Association (APA): Electronic Sources

Basic Format

Begin the entry with the last name of the author, and the author's first and middle initials. Place the date that the document was published in parenthesis. Include the title of the work, the day that the source was retrieved, and the address of the source.

Article in an Internet-only Journal

Include the author's last name and first and middle initials. Place the date that the document was published in parenthesis. Include the title of the document (do not place it in italics or in quotes) and the title of the on-line journal and volume number in italics. Make sure to include the date that the document was retrieved and the web address of the source.

Stand-alone Document (no author or date)

If the document does not have an author or date, begin the entry with the title of the document. After the title, place "n.d." ("no date") in parenthesis, the date that you accessed the document, and the web address of the source.

Electronic Version of Newspaper Article

Message Posted to a Newsgroup

Provide the author's name, if available. Place the date that the message was posted in parenthesis. Afterwards, include the subject line of the message (do not place it in quotes or in italics) and include identifiers for the message in brackets. Finish the citation with "Message posted to" and the address of the newsgroup.

For more specific information, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Fifth Edition) or see the APA style website.