Modern Language Association (MLA)
(adapted from The MLA Style Center; last updated 6/10/16)
In its 8th edition (released May 2016), the MLA has simplified its citation guidelines.
Following a summary, paraphrase, or quotation, include the author’s last name and the relevant page number(s) in parentheses. For example: One author claims that “no one is concerned with this issue” (Jones 45).
Click here for more information about In-Text Citation.
Works Cited Entries
Rather than learning to cite a source by type (e.g., book, article, website), the MLA now recommends a universal set of guidelines that writers can apply to any source. Instead of asking “How do I cite a book [or article or website]?” the writer will create an entry by consulting the MLA’s list of core elements—facts common to most works—which are assembled in a specific order:
- Title of source.
- Title of container,
- Other contributors,
- Publication date,
Example 1: Journal article from a database
- Author: Lorensen, Jutta
- Title of source (article title): “Between Image and Word, Color, and Time: Jacob Lawrence’s The Migration Series.”
- Title of container (the journal): African American Review
- Other contributors: Not applicable
- Version: Not applicable
- Number (journal volume and issue): vol. 40, no. 3
- Publisher: Not applicable
- Publication date: 2006
- Location (inclusive pages): pp. 571-86.
#4 through #8: Not applicable
9. Location (URL, without http or www): search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=24093790&site=ehost-live.
Lorensen, Jutta. “Between Image and Word, Color, and Time: Jacob Lawrence’s The Migration Series.” African American Review, vol. 40, no. 3, 2006, pp. 571-86. EbscoHost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=24093790&site=ehost-live.
Example 2: Essay in an anthology
- Author: Edward Copeland
- Title of source (the essay): “Money”
- Title of container (the anthology): The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen
- Other contributors (editors of the anthology): Edward Copeland and Juliet McMaster
- Version: Not applicable
- Number: Not applicable
- Publisher: Cambridge University Press
- Publication date: 1997
- Location (inclusive page numbers for the essay): 131-148.
Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.
For more information and examples, please visit The MLA Style Center and its "Works Cited: A Quick Guide." For more inforamtion about in-text citation and general formatting and style guidelines, please consult the Purdue OWL. We also recommend that you make use of the Library's Research and Information Services.